The Post-Modernist Movements and Painters:Time Period.
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What does Post- Modernist really mean?
The Post-Modernist Movements Painters rejected the notion of advancement or progress.
The Post-Modernist Movement has existed at the same time as
the Contemporary art form,
which is predominantly a term for everything created from the 1950s time period onward.
All art is not labelled as contemporary art. Some are P-M(post-modern), and the broader term encompasses both artists and painters who continue to work in modernist and late modernist traditions, as well as artists who reject it for other reasons.
Arthur Danto argues that "contemporary" is the broader term,
and that Post-Modernist objects represent a "subsector" of the
contemporary Movements. Some post modernist Painters have made a
more distinctive break from the ideas of modern art and
there is no consensus as to what is "late-modern" and what
is "P-M." Ideas rejected by the modern aesthetic
have been reestablished.
In painting, P-M reintroduced representation.
Traditional painter's techniques and subject matter have returned in art. It has even been argued that much of what is called P-M today, the latest avant-gardism, should still be
classified as modern art.
As well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art,
Post-Modernism has also been used to denote a phase of modern
art. This position is adopted by both defenders of the Period
, as well as radical opponents of
this time such as Felix Guattari, who calls it the Period's
"last gasp.". The neo-conservative Hilton Kramer describes
P.M as "a creation of the Period at the end of its
tether." Jean-François Lyotard, in Frederic Jameson's analysis,
does not hold that there is a P.M stage radically
different from the period of high modernism; instead,
P.M discontent with this or that high modernist style
is part of the experimentation of high modernism,
giving birth to new painters and Periods.
What the critics say........
Fredrick Jameson argues that the condition of life and
production will be reflected in all activity, including the
making of art.
Jean Baudrillard has had a significant influence on
P-M-inspired art and has emphasised the possibilities
of new forms of creativity. The artist Peter Halley describes
his day-glo colours as "hyperrealization of real color", and
acknowledges Baudrillard as an influence. Baudrillard himself,
since 1984, was fairly consistent in his view that
contemporary art, and P-M art in particular, was
inferior to the modernist art of the post World War II period.
Time for a slide show.....
Defining Post-Modern Art
P-M describes movements which both arise from,
and react against or reject, trends in modernism. Specific
trends of modernism that are generally cited are formal
purity, medium specificity, art for art's sake, authenticity,
universal truth, originality and the avant-garde. However,
paradox is probably the most important modernist idea against
which P-M reacts. Paradox was central to the
modernist enterprise, having been introduced by Manet.
Manet's various violations of representational art brought
to prominence the supposed mutual exclusiveness of reality
and representation, design and representation, abstraction
and reality, and so on. Never more than a technique, the
incorporation of paradox was nevertheless highly stimulating
from Manet all the way up to the conceptualists.
The status of the avant-garde is particularly controversial:
many institutions argue that being visionary, forward-looking,
cutting-edge, and progressive are crucial to the mission of
art in the present, and therefore P-M art contradicts
the value of "art of our times". Post-Modernism rejects the
notion of advancement or progress in art per se, and thus
aims to overturn the "myth of the avant-garde". Rosalind
Krauss was one of the important enunciators of the view that
avant-gardism was over, and that the new artistic era is
post-liberal and post-progress.
One characteristic of P-M art is its conflation of the
distinction between high and low culture through the use of
industrial materials and pop culture imagery. The use of
low forms of art were a part of modernist experimentation as
well, as documented in Kirk Vanedoe and Adam Gopnik's
1990-91 show High and Low: Popular Culture and Modern Art at
New York's Museum of Modern Art, an exhibition that was
universally panned at the time as the only event that could
bring Douglas Crimp and Hilton Kramer together in a chorus of
Fredrick Jameson suggests that Post-Modernist works abjure any
claim to spontaneity and directness of expression, making use
instead of pastiche and discontinuity. Against this
definition Charles Harrison and Paul Wood maintain that
pastiche and discontinuity are endemic to modernist art,
and are deployed effectively by modern artists such as Manet
One compact definition is that P-M rejects
modernism's grand narratives of artistic direction,
eradicating the boundaries between high and low forms of
art, and disrupting genre's conventions with collision,
collage, and fragmentation. Post-Modernism art holds that all
stances are unstable and insincere, and therefore irony,
parody, and humor are the only positions that cannot be
overturned by critique or revision.
Radical movements and trends regarded as influential and
potentially as precursors to Post-Modernism emerged around
World War I and particularly in its aftermath. With the
introduction of the use of industrial artifacts in art and
techniques such as
collage,avant- garde,pre Post-Modernist Movements such as Cubism
, Dada and
questioned the nature and value
of art. These movements were influenced by new artforms such
as cinema and the rise of reproduction as a means of
creating artworks. The ignition point for the definition
of modernism, Clement Greenberg's essay, Avant-Garde and
Kitsch, first published in Partisan Review in 1939, is
a defence of the avant-garde in the face of popular culture.
Later, Peter Bürger would make a distinction between the
historical avant-garde and modernism, and critics such as
Krauss, Huyssen, and Douglas Crimp, following Bürger,
identified the historical avant-garde as a precursor to
post-Modernism. Krauss, for example, describes Pablo
Picasso's use of collage as an avant-garde practice that
anticipates P-M art with its emphasis on language at
the expense of autobiography. Another point of view is that
avant-garde and modernist artists used similar strategies
and that P-M repudiates both.
The Dada Movement
In the early 20th century Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a sculpture. His point was to have people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art, because he said it was a work of art.
He referred to his work as "Readymades."
The Fountain, was a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, that shocked the art world in 1917.
This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art. It is questionable, to some, whether Duchamp--whose obsession with paradox is well known--can be called Post-Modernist on only the grounds that he eschews any specific medium, since paradox is not medium-specific, although it arose first in Manet's paintings.
Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity
to challenge established styles and forms, along with
, Futurism and Abstract Expressionism. From a
chronological point of view Dada is located solidly within
modernism, however a number of critics have held that it
anticipates P-M while others, such as Ihab
Hassan and Steven Connor, consider it a possible changeover
point between modernism and P-M. For example,
according to McEvilly, P-M begins with the
realization that one no longer believes in the myth of
progress, and that Duchamp sensed this in 1914 when he
changed his modernist practice to a P-M one,
"abjuring aesthetic delectation, transcendent ambition,
and tour de force demonstrations of formal agility in favor
of aesthetic indifference, acknowledgement of the ordinary
world, and the found object or readymade."