The Post-Modernist Movements and Painters:Time Period.

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What does Post- Modernist really mean?

The Post-Modernist Movements Painters rejected the notion of advancement or progress.

The Post-Modernist Movement has existed at the same time as the Contemporary art form, which is predominantly a term for everything created from the 1950s time period onward. All art is not labelled as contemporary art. Some are P-M(post-modern), and the broader term encompasses both artists and painters who continue to work in modernist and late modernist traditions, as well as artists who reject it for other reasons.

The Arguement........

Arthur Danto argues that "contemporary" is the broader term, and that Post-Modernist objects represent a "subsector" of the contemporary Movements. Some post modernist Painters have made a more distinctive break from the ideas of modern art and there is no consensus as to what is "late-modern" and what is "P-M." Ideas rejected by the modern aesthetic have been reestablished. In painting, P-M reintroduced representation. Traditional painter's techniques and subject matter have returned in art. It has even been argued that much of what is called P-M today, the latest avant-gardism, should still be classified as modern art. As well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art, Post-Modernism has also been used to denote a phase of modern art. This position is adopted by both defenders of the Period such as Clement Greenberg , as well as radical opponents of this time such as Felix Guattari, who calls it the Period's "last gasp.". The neo-conservative Hilton Kramer describes P.M as "a creation of the Period at the end of its tether." Jean-François Lyotard, in Frederic Jameson's analysis, does not hold that there is a P.M stage radically different from the period of high modernism; instead, P.M discontent with this or that high modernist style is part of the experimentation of high modernism, giving birth to new painters and Periods.

What the critics say........

Fredrick Jameson argues that the condition of life and production will be reflected in all activity, including the making of art.

Jean Baudrillard has had a significant influence on P-M-inspired art and has emphasised the possibilities of new forms of creativity. The artist Peter Halley describes his day-glo colours as "hyperrealization of real color", and acknowledges Baudrillard as an influence. Baudrillard himself, since 1984, was fairly consistent in his view that contemporary art, and P-M art in particular, was inferior to the modernist art of the post World War II period.

Time for a slide show.....

Defining Post-Modern Art

P-M describes movements which both arise from, and react against or reject, trends in modernism. Specific trends of modernism that are generally cited are formal purity, medium specificity, art for art's sake, authenticity, universal truth, originality and the avant-garde. However, paradox is probably the most important modernist idea against which P-M reacts. Paradox was central to the modernist enterprise, having been introduced by Manet. Manet's various violations of representational art brought to prominence the supposed mutual exclusiveness of reality and representation, design and representation, abstraction and reality, and so on. Never more than a technique, the incorporation of paradox was nevertheless highly stimulating from Manet all the way up to the conceptualists.

The status of the avant-garde is particularly controversial: many institutions argue that being visionary, forward-looking, cutting-edge, and progressive are crucial to the mission of art in the present, and therefore P-M art contradicts the value of "art of our times". Post-Modernism rejects the notion of advancement or progress in art per se, and thus aims to overturn the "myth of the avant-garde". Rosalind Krauss was one of the important enunciators of the view that avant-gardism was over, and that the new artistic era is post-liberal and post-progress.

One characteristic of P-M art is its conflation of the distinction between high and low culture through the use of industrial materials and pop culture imagery. The use of low forms of art were a part of modernist experimentation as well, as documented in Kirk Vanedoe and Adam Gopnik's 1990-91 show High and Low: Popular Culture and Modern Art at New York's Museum of Modern Art, an exhibition that was universally panned at the time as the only event that could bring Douglas Crimp and Hilton Kramer together in a chorus of scorn. Fredrick Jameson suggests that Post-Modernist works abjure any claim to spontaneity and directness of expression, making use instead of pastiche and discontinuity. Against this definition Charles Harrison and Paul Wood maintain that pastiche and discontinuity are endemic to modernist art, and are deployed effectively by modern artists such as Manet and Picasso.

One compact definition is that P-M rejects modernism's grand narratives of artistic direction, eradicating the boundaries between high and low forms of art, and disrupting genre's conventions with collision, collage, and fragmentation. Post-Modernism art holds that all stances are unstable and insincere, and therefore irony, parody, and humor are the only positions that cannot be overturned by critique or revision.

Avant-garde precursors

Radical movements and trends regarded as influential and potentially as precursors to Post-Modernism emerged around World War I and particularly in its aftermath. With the introduction of the use of industrial artifacts in art and techniques such as collage, avant- garde, pre Post-Modernist Movements such as Cubism , Dada and Surrealism questioned the nature and value of art. These movements were influenced by new artforms such as cinema and the rise of reproduction as a means of creating artworks. The ignition point for the definition of modernism, Clement Greenberg's essay, Avant-Garde and Kitsch, first published in Partisan Review in 1939, is a defence of the avant-garde in the face of popular culture. Later, Peter Bürger would make a distinction between the historical avant-garde and modernism, and critics such as Krauss, Huyssen, and Douglas Crimp, following Bürger, identified the historical avant-garde as a precursor to post-Modernism. Krauss, for example, describes Pablo Picasso's use of collage as an avant-garde practice that anticipates P-M art with its emphasis on language at the expense of autobiography. Another point of view is that avant-garde and modernist artists used similar strategies and that P-M repudiates both.

The Dada Movement

In the early 20th century Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a sculpture. His point was to have people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art, because he said it was a work of art. He referred to his work as "Readymades." The Fountain, was a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, that shocked the art world in 1917. This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art. It is questionable, to some, whether Duchamp--whose obsession with paradox is well known--can be called Post-Modernist on only the grounds that he eschews any specific medium, since paradox is not medium-specific, although it arose first in Manet's paintings.

Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity to challenge established styles and forms, along with Surrealism , Futurism and Abstract Expressionism. From a chronological point of view Dada is located solidly within modernism, however a number of critics have held that it anticipates P-M while others, such as Ihab Hassan and Steven Connor, consider it a possible changeover point between modernism and P-M. For example, according to McEvilly, P-M begins with the realization that one no longer believes in the myth of progress, and that Duchamp sensed this in 1914 when he changed his modernist practice to a P-M one, "abjuring aesthetic delectation, transcendent ambition, and tour de force demonstrations of formal agility in favor of aesthetic indifference, acknowledgement of the ordinary world, and the found object or readymade."

Movement and Artist List

Movements: Pop Art - line break, Minimalism, conceptual art, The usage of: assemblage, montage, bricolage, and appropriation. Abstract Expressionism, Color Field, Hard Edge (Geometrical Abstraction), Lyrical Abstraction. Painters: Jackson Pollock Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline,

Mark Rothko Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt

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